This is a traditional method of woodland management dating back to at least Norman Times. Pollarding was a common practice in areas of wood pasture where animals grazed beneath widely spaced trees. The growth of lateral branches was encouraged by cutting off a tree stem or minor branches two or three metres above ground level. After the initial cutting the tree is allowed to re-grow, however, once started, regular maintenance by pruning is required. This will eventually result in a somewhat ‘swollen’ top to the tree trunk with multiple new side and top shoots growing from it. Many types of broadleaved tree with vigorous economic growth may be made into pollards.